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          Proposal for (Your Client)         By (YOUR AGENCY)    





Dear ( ): 

We are pleased to submit herewith our proposal for ground-water exploration for the (your area). 

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me. 

Sincerely yours, 

(Your Name) 

(Your Title) 


(Statement of the problem) 

    We propose that the (your client) utilize AGW Consultants (or CYWATER) in for the (your program) ground-water exploration and development program.  AGW conducts integrated studies using geologic, photogeologic, geomorphic, and geophysical methods.  Their proprietary Thermonic geophysical survey methods have successfully located well sites elsewhere assuring that (your client) can obtain the maximum quantity of ground-water with minimum number of wells and minimum, long-term, power, operation and maintenance cost. 

    Thermonic techniques have been successful in many places worldwide in the search for ground-water and other related problems.  AGW Consultants (or CYWATER) has applied these methods successfully on projects for private industrial clients, government agencies and international funding organizations. 

    With regard to (your specific program) Appendix 3 contains case studies carried out by AGW Consultants (or CYWATER) on similar projects. (Download applicable case studies from our web site.) 


(Describe your project area here) 


(Describe the geology, hydrology and climatology of your area here.) 

3.1     Geology 

3.2     Surface Water Hydrology 

(Describe surface water hydrology.) 

3.3     Ground-Water Hydrology 

(Describe ground-water occurrence and aquifers and their hydraulic properties.) 


(Describe previous work in the area and available information.) 


    AGW scientists developed Thermonics to maximize the successes of drilling high capacity water wells. 

    Thermonics is the only ground-water exploration method that actually measures properties of the moving ground-water.  It evaluates the modulation and redistribution of rising geothermal heat by moving ground water. Fast-moving ground water in zones of high aquifer transmissivity will significantly modulate and redistribute normal heat flow within the earth's crust. 

    Other geological and geophysical methods examine geologic features or geophysical properties of the rock which are thought to be associated with ground-water occurrence but commonly are not. 

    Precise temperature measurements are made in existing wells and shallow test holes up to 50- feet (15 m). Temperature is measured to the nearest 0.005 degree Centigrade 

    Spacing of Thermonic observation holes varies according to the size of the zone of high transmissivity that is being sought.  For example, if the target zone is 500 feet (152 m) wide, observation holes spaced 50 feet (15 m) apart may be needed.  As the target becomes defined, a Newtonian interval bisection method is employed. Holes are drilled at closer locations to zero in on the drilling target. 

    The basic theory underlying the Thermonic method is based on the Stallman Equation that describes the flow of rising geothermal heat through a porous medium that contains moving ground water.  Solutions to the Stallman Equation have been derived for simple one-dimensional ground-water-flow systems where ground water flows either vertically or horizontally. 

    An approximate analytic solution of the Stallman Equation for a simple two-dimensional groundwater flow system has been used successfully in exploring for shallow ground water in Illinois in the American Midwest. 

    Finite difference solutions for the Stallman Equation were developed for general one-, two- and three-dimensional ground-water-flow systems regardless of complexity.  These finite difference solutions provide the firm mathematical basis, which supports the Thermonic method. 

    The failure of other workers to successfully utilize shallow subsurface temperature data for ground-water exploration lies in the assumptions required by the solutions of the Stallman Equation.  The Stallman Equation assumes that the earth's crust is a flat, semi-infinite solid with uniform thermal properties. In the real world this is never true. 

    AGW (or CYWATER) scientists have developed proprietary methods to remove the effects of irregular surface topography, downward propagation of solar heat, and varying thermal conductivity caused by variable soil mineralogy and soil-moisture content. Additionally, subsurface thermal data is not contoured like most data.  To properly analyze isobathythermonic data, AGW (or CYWATER) scientists have developed "valley mapping function" to properly display the data.  The "valley mapping function" does not rely on computer-based geostatistical methods such as kriging but is rather an expert manual method of plotting and interpreting their data. 

    Without these proprietary corrections procedures and the "valley mapping function", subsurface thermal data can easily lead to erroneous results, particularly in areas where heat flow anomalies are very small.  For this reason, we recommend AGW (or CYWATER). 

    Thermonic surveys are extremely rapid, accurate and inexpensive compared to random or non-random drilling programs.  This will result in significant cost savings to (your client).  The magnitude of the savings possible is illustrated by a real ground-water exploration program south of Tucson, Arizona that is detailed in Appendix 2. (Download from our web site


    Thermonics has been used successfully by AGW (or CYWATER) scientists in ground-water studies in both arid and humid climates, in the United States, Africa and Latin America. 

    Projects successfully completed by AGW utilizing Thermonic techniques include: 

(Choose those that apply and download from our web page. Some of our case studies relate fracture trace methods for well-site location, cultural biological methods for well-site location, deep, ground-water exploration and development, soil-moisture studies, and computer modeling of ground-water systems.) 

    1.     Location of water well sites and tracing of buried river-channel sands in the Jurassic Morrison Formation, McKinley County, New Mexico, U.S.A..  Client: Standard Oil of Ohio Uranium Company. 

    2.     Thermonic Ground-Water Exploration and Well-Site Location Survey near Liberal, Kansas, U.S.A.. Client: Layne Western Corporation.  

    3.     Location of paths of ground-water flow into the Marampa open-pit iron mine in crystalline rock, Lunsar, Sierra Leon, West Africa.  Client: Sierra Leone Development Corporation

    4.     Optimum well-site location in the Tablazo Formation at the Chapucal Well Field, Ecuador, S.A..  Client: Empressa Municipal de Agua Potable de Guayaquil under funding from the World Bank.  

    5.     Ground-Water Exploration and Well Site Location in a Narrow Sand-Filled bedrock Channel, Vail, Arizona, U.S.A..  Client: Congress Water Company funded by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farmers Home Administration

    6.     Well-site location in the North Boundary Channel of the Canada de los Alamos Land Grant, Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A.. Client: Horizon Corporation

    7.     Well-site location using hydrogeologic and Thermonic methods in the vicinity of Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico.  Client: Secretaria Recursos Hidraulicos

    8.     Thermonic exploration for optimum well sites on the Sahuarita Bombing Range, South of Tucson, Arizona, U.S.A..  Client: City of Tucson Water Department

    9.     Optimum well-site location for the Robinson oil refinery, Palestine, Illinois, U.S.A.  Client: Marathon Oil Company

    10.     Evaluation of ground-water recharge to and transmissivity distribution within four large groundwater basins covering an area of 1,500 square miles (3,800 km2) south of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Client: Secretaria Recursos Hidraulicos.  

    11.     Optimum well-site location and evaluation of the ground-water-flow system near Regina, New Mexico based on hydrogeological and Thermonic methods.  Client: American Recreational Properties, Inc..  

    13.     Fracture-trace methods for optimum well-site location in the Precambrian basement of Three Guns Canyon, east of Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A..  Client: MJB Joint Venture

    14.     Location and tracing zones of rapid ground-water flow in the foundation of Tarbela dam, West Pakistan.  Client: Water and Power Development Authority of Pakistan and TAMS International under funding from the World Bank

    15.     Use of Thermonics in Foundation Studies in Karst Limestone at Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky, U.S.A..  Client: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    16.     Quantitative and qualitative reconnaissance evaluation of the ground-water resources of the Pearce-Squaretop Hills area, Cochise County, Arizona.  Client: Horizon Corporation  

    17.     Deep ground-water exploration and development west of Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A..  Client: New Mexico Motor Speedway Corporation.  


7.1     Hydrogeological Reconnaissance 

    Prior to beginning field work, AGW (or CYWATER) scientists will review available climatologic, hydrologic and geologic literature, reports and areal photography to familiarize them with the area of investigation. 

7.2     Thermonic Geophysical Survey 

    AGW (or CYWATER) will conduct a Thermonic geophysical survey of (location here)

    The Thermonic geophysical survey will be conducted to determine the areal distribution of the aquifer transmissivity within the area. 

    To implement the Thermonic survey, AGW (or CYWATER) scientists will conduct reconnaissance temperature measurements in any existing wells and brothels in the area of interest. 

    The initial survey will provide AGW (or CYWATER) scientists with an areal picture of ground-water occurrence and the distribution of aquifer transmissivity.  Initial interpretations of this data in the field together with hydrogeological information will be used to plan the second phase of the investigation. 

    The second phase of the Thermonic geophysical survey will require the installation of a number of Thermonic observation holes, each a minimum of 10 feet (3 m) deep.  Specially designed measurement tubes will be installed in each observation hole for the rapid and accurate measurement of soil temperatures. 

    AGW scientists will analyze the data and, if needed recommend additional observation hole sites. 

    Thermonic observation holes will be constructed in lines perpendicular to suspected high transmissivity zones interpreted in the first phase of the study. 

    The result of the Thermonic geophysical survey will be discreet points or defined linear zones. 


8.0     FOLLOW-UP 

After well sites and zones of maximum aquifer transmissivity have been located it is recommended that (your client) drill inexpensive, small-diameter, test wells in the recommended locations. (Your client) should use these test wells for: 

    1.     Determination of depth to ground water, 

    2.     Collection of water and soil samples, 

    3.     Geophysical logging, 

    4.     Determination of depth and thickness of the principal aquifer, 

    5.     Collection of drill cuttings to design the production well, 

    6.     Performance of short-term aquifer tests to evaluate aquifer transmissivity and design the production rate of a production well. 

    7.     Future determination of the aquifer storage coefficient; and, 

    8.     Future monitoring of ground-water levels. 


    Drilling creates significant heat that disturbs the ambient thermal equilibrium of the soils. About 99 percent of the thermal disturbance will dissipate after a period of time equal to twice the drilling period.  After the test wells have returned to thermal equilibrium, AGW (or CYWATER) scientists will make Thermonic observations in the test wells and use the data to calculate ground-water flow rates where ground-water flow is horizontal. 


    Using data from the Thermonic geophysical survey and from aquifer-performance tests, AGW (or CYWATER) scientists can construct or assist in the construction of a digital-computer, aquifer-response model of the area. AGW (or CYWATER) scientists use the MODFLOW code of the U.S. Geological Survey.  Other computer codes can be used.  The aquifer-response model will be used to determine optimum well spacing within the zones of maximum transmissivity delineated by the Thermonic geophysical survey.  The model will be of benefit not only for determination of the optimum well spacing, but will also aid in the management and operation of the well field and the determination of future pumping and operation and maintenance costs. 


10.1     Task I - General Administrative and Reporting Functions 

    This task, continuing throughout the duration of the proposed project, provides the administrative support, review and reporting activities set forth by AGW (or CYWATER) that are necessary for the maintenance of good communications between (your client) and AGW (or CYWATER) necessary for the successful completion of the proposed project. Project control will be utilized throughout this task to develop scheduling and accounting information. 

    Reporting will proceed concurrently with Thermonic surveying as the exploration progresses to provide guidance to (your client) in its deep-hole, test program and to insure the maximum coordination between the two programs. 

10.2     Task II - Assemble and Evaluate Available Information 

    Before beginning field work, all pertinent climatological, hydrological, geological, and engineering information will be assembled and studied in detail.  Information, which may be useful during the course of the proposed project, may be reproduced.  A field trip to the project area will be made. 

10.3     Task III - On-Site Investigation 

    AGW (or CYWATER) will collect as much hydrologic and Thermonic information as possible within the study area from test holes, piezometers, and wells.  AGW (or CYWATER) scientists will process and interpret the data from the project area to designate the location and construction details of the Thermonic observation holes that will be needed. 

10.4     Task IV - Installation of Thermonic Observation Holes and Data Collection 

    AGW (or CYWATER) scientists will supervise installation of Thermonic observation holes. Installation of Thermonic measurement tubes will proceed concurrently. 

    The study area to be explored will be determined by mutual agreement between AGW (or CYWATER) and (your client).  Thermonic observations made initially in widely spaced observation stations will serve as a guide for the subsequent location of more closely spaced observation stations that may be needed to locate the centers of zones of high transmissivity very accurately. 

10.5     Task V - Drilling and Construction of Test Wells 

    AGW (or CYWATER) scientists will supervise the construction of one or more test wells. Drill cuttings will be collected and lithologic logs prepared.  Geophysical logs will be ordered to accurately define formation tops and other geological parameters. 

10.6     Task VI - Aquifer Performance Tests 

    AGW (or CYWATER) scientists will conduct aquifer-performance tests and will collect water level data using high-speed, water-level measurement and data logging equipment.  Data will be analyzed to determine aquifer transmissivity, skin effect, well losses, and the pumping capacity of a production well at the site. 

10.7     Task VII - Thermonic Logging of Test Holes 

    AGW (or CYWATER) will make Thermonic logs of the test wells drilled by (your client) after the holes have returned to thermal equilibrium.  Depending on the drilling time, several weeks may be required for re-equilibration.  A cooling study will be carried out on the first test well to determine the time for thermal re-equilibration. 

    If ground-water flow is horizontal in an unconfined aquifer or if the aquifer is confined, Thermonic data can be used to determine ground-water-flow rates and aquifer transmissivities. 

    Thermonic analysis of data above the water table can determine the rate of ground-water recharge through the land surface. 

10.8     Task VIII - Aquifer Response Model (Optional) 

    On completion of the exploration program as outlined in Tasks I through VIII, AGW (or CYWATER) will construct a digital-computer, aquifer-response model of the study. 

    AGW scientists use the United States Geological Survey MODFLOW code and the ESRI Geographic Information System (GIS) technology.  The model will be operated by AGW scientists for (your client) to determine the optimum spacing and distribution of wells in the study area based on the anticipated water demand, water production capability of the wells and well field cost. 

    Such a model is deemed necessary because aquifer transmissivity will be lognormally or geometrically distributed in space and well spacings and future drawdown and well field economics cannot be reasonably evaluated without such a model. 

    Subsequently, the model will be turned over to (your client) for their continued future use. 


11.0     PERSONNEL 

    Administrative responsibility, technical direction, and technical review of all tasks will be undertaken by Dr. William M. Turner, a Certified Ground Water Professional and Registered Professional Geologist with more than 35 years of experience worldwide. 

    Field work will be under the supervision of Mr. David Wagner, a Hydrologist and Registered Professional Geologist. 

    Geophysical control of projects will be under either Mr. David Hyndman or Mr. Sid Brandwine, professional geophysicists with extensive experience in all geophysical methods. 

    Resumes for key employees are in Appendix 2 (downloadable from our web site).     AGW (or CYWATER) will use local personnel to the greatest extent possible. 


    Project scheduling will be prepared by AGW (or CYWATER) based on client needs and workload. 


    The turnkey cost estimate for the completion of the Tasks described is (e-mail us for an estimate) plus a well-head royalty or an annual fee based on potential water use and the LIBOR rate as a fee escalator. The contractual arrangement allowing for well-head royalty or annual fee will be established before any work is carried out in connection with local legal counsel. 

    The cost is based on AGW's current understanding of the problem and the future water requirements of (your client). Changes in the anticipated design of the exploration program or extent and/or location of the project area may necessitate a change in the turnkey cost.

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